Understanding the Relationship between Earlier Menopause and Cardiovascular Disease using Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Menopause is a crucial reproductive event in women’s lives, affecting 1% of women before the age of 40. Early menopause occurs before the age of 45, and below the median age of 51. Premature menopause increases the risk of mortality, cardiovascular, neurological, psychiatric, and osteoporosis diseases. Hormone replacement therapy may potentially prevent some adverse outcomes, but it is associated with thromboembolic events and cannot prevent all long-term consequences. This study aims to assess the effect of early menopause and estrogen decline on cardiac function, including left ventricle and right ventricle ejection fractions, EDVI, ESVI, strains, tissue characteristics, and myocardial oxygenation using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.